The Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization :
For many year after the discovery of the differentsites,it was belived that this civilization was limited to the valley of River Indus and its tributaries.Civilization was spread over a much lager area.Besides Harppa and Mohenjo-daro,remains of this civilization have been found at Banawali(Haryana),Rupar(Punjab),Alamgirpur(Utter Pardesh)Kalibagan (ajasthan) and at many more place.
Our knowledge of the Indus Valley Civilization is largely derived from archaeological sources such as the granaries at Harppa,the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro,and artefacts such as ornaments,pots ,statues,seal,ect.The INdus script,being undeciphered till now ,has not been of much help to us.
The Indus Valley Civilization flourished roughly between 2500-1500 BC.In some areas,it continued even after this.It existed around the same time as civilization in Egypt,Mesopotamia and China.
Most Indus cities were divided into two parts-the citadel and the lower town.THe citadel was built on a raised ground and enclosed by high walls.The lower town,which was much lager,contained the houses and workplaces of the common people
Building on the citadel
Harappa Amongst the most impressive building found at Harppa,mention must be made of the two rows of six granaries,popularly known as the Great Granary.
A Dockyard built of bricks has been excavated at Lothal.It shows that the Harppa were familiar with ships.Godos made in the Harppa cities were probaly exported fom here and goods coming from outside were also unloaded here.
The society probaly consisted of three social groups.Priests and rich merchants formed the ruling class.They lived in the citadel.The second group was that of small merchants,artisans and craftsmen.They lived in the lower town.The lived in samll huts outside the city.
Wheat and barely were the main crops.They wee used to make bread.OIl was extracted from mustard.Evidence from Lothal suggests that rice was cultivated.People ate meat,fish,eggs,milk,fruits,and vegetable
We know about the religion of the Harappan people from the objects discovered from different sites.No temple have been found.The Great Bath might be arelgious structure.Probaly.it was used for ritual bathing.
.The Indus Valley Civilization flourshed roughly betwwen 2500 BC and 1500 BC.Many sitesof the civilization have been excavated.
.The citied were divided into the citadel and the lower town.The lowertown had residential structure.
.All citied were well-planned.They had wide roads,house built of baked bricks and an excellent drainged system.
.People grew wheat,barely,musted and rice.Clothesmade of cotton and wool were used Both men and women wore ornaments.
.Most people were farmersTher were also many traders,metal-worker,potters,brick layers ans manson.
.The Harappans tradedwith Mesopotamia,Persia and Afghanistan.Trade was based on barter.
.The Harappans traded script was pictographic.It has not yet been deciphered.
.Natural disters or invasions may have led to the decline of the civilization.