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Adjournment : Suspension of sitting of a legiuslative body by the speaker or it may be suspended on the demand by the majority of members of the house.A house is adjourned automatically if a full quorum is not present.
Adult Franchise : it is asacred day in buddist calender. it was on this day that prince sidhartha, who later became buddha was born. it was again on this day that buddha got enlightement under a bodhi tree at gaya and again it is on this vishaka purnima, 80 years after that buddha attained mahapariniwana in kosi.
Ante Date :Giving a date prior to that on which, it is written to any bill, cheque or an other document.
Appericiation of money: Rise in the price of money due to fall in the general price level.
Arbitration: A method for compounding dispute, generally of an industrial nature, between the employees by reference to distinguished parties- called arbitrators.
Assets: Property of any kind available towards the discharge of a liabilities of a testator, intestate debtor or company.
Balance-sheet: A statement of accounts of a buisness concern, prepared at the end of a year,showing debits and credits unde broad heads, to find out the p[rofit and loss in the buisness during the year.
Anti-toxin:A substance produced by the blood to counteract the effect of poison or infection.
Appendictis:This disease caused by the inflammationn of the appendix which results in general feeling of uneasiness and pain in the upper part of abdomen.
Aspirin: To relieve Pain; it is safely and widely used for the relief of headace, rheunatic aches and pains.
Asthma:A disease marked by the difficulty in breathing due to spasm of the bronchial muscles.
Black Market: Profiteering by hoarding and selling at orbitant prices , without accounting,or with false accounting.
Black Money: Money accumulated by way of illegal trasactions without declaring it for tax purposes or paying tax.
Bond:A monetary agreement between two persons, between two goverments or between a person and a goverment or corporation or between a corporation and government.
Beri-Bei:A Vitamin B deficiency disease marked by muscular astrophy.it causes numbness of arms and legs and swelling of the feet and arms. Eating of polished rice can cause it.
Bladder:A membranous body situated in the front part of the palvis cavity, which acts as a reservoir of urine.
Blood Bank: The store house of blood to administered in cases of emergency.
Blood Groups:Human blood can be classified into four groups A,B,AB and O.In administering blood from one person to another, one has to be careful to administer blood of the same group, oherwise it would be prove fatal GROUP O is universal and it can be given to any body.
Blood Pressure:It is the pressure exerted by blood against the blood vessels; chronic anxiety, perpetual worry and kidney trouble cause high blood pessure.Low blood pressure results in fainting attacks.
Blood Transfusion:Treansferring the blood of one person to another in case of loss of blood due to accident or child birth.and in case of anaemic children .
Bronchitis:It is the caused by the in flammation of the tubes leading from the winds pipe to the lungs. The best treatment is to take rest and depend upon easily digestible food.
Brain Drain:Talented men leaving their own country for lack of opportunities and facilities, and leaving for foreig countries which provide better conditions.
Budget: Estimated income and expenditure of a state company or corporation generally for ensuring year.
Bye-election:Special election which is held between regular elections to fill vcany caused by resignation or death of a member.
Capitalism:It is a system under which private enterprise has complete freedom to dvise and control production and distribution for their own profit.
Casting Vote:A deciding vote cast by a ppredising officer case of a tie.
Caucus:A closed meeting of a group of persons belong the same political party or faction usually to elect candidatees or decide on policy .
Cold War:A statye of apparent peace between powerful countries or blocks, showing malice against each other through person radio,etc. it is often used to describe the relationship that has enisted between the soviet union and the Western powers since 1947.
Communism:The theory as expounded by Marx and engles land,factoris,bank,trading houses, etc is abolished.
Contituent:A body of statesmen elected to frame contitution for a country. Indian constitution was also framed by constituent assembly.
Carbohydrates:One of the chief classes of food-stuffs embracing starches, sugar and others so called "energy food".
Cardiograph:An instrument for recording the movements hearts.
Cataract:Clouding of the lens of the eye, which prevent clear vision; mostly cured with an operation.
Chicken-pox:A very infectious disease. it is caused by a virus occuring commonly in children. One attack usually gives life long immmunity.
Chromosomes:The bodies contained within the nucleus of every animal or plant cell, each containing several hundreds of the hereditory factors called genes. When the cell splits each chromosome splits up into an identical complement of genes.
Cholera:An acute bacterial infection characterised by seven vomitting and passing of loose motions frequently, drying of the tissues and painful cramps. it spreads by infected food and water.
Chronic:a chronic disease one of which is prolonged and relatively mild as opposed to an accute one, which short and severe.
Cinchona:The tree native to south America from whose bark quinine is derived.
Colds:This is a highly infectious disease and is caused by a virus salt gems.It results in bad throat, headache and watery nose.
Colic:severe pain in the abdomen, caused by spasma of the internal organs, usually the intestines.
Copyright:It is an exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish and sell the matter of literary, musical,artistical or other written works.
Cosmonaut:A person engaged in or trained for space flights for the first time, this term was coined in russia.
Deficit Finacing:When expendiiture exceeds revenue, paper currency is printed to fill the gap. it proves beneficial when it creates greater productivity,it generates serious inflaction and adversely affects real wages.
Devaluation:Deliberate reduction in value of home currencym in relation to foreign currency.
Dialectical Materialism:A method of historical analysis associated with the name of Karl Markx borrowed this method from hegel, according to whom history was the product of class of opposing ideas.
Dictatorship:One-man rule with no controlling factor to call him to account one person vested with absolute autohrity.
Diehards:People who have extreme conservgative and reactsonary views.They obstruct progress.
Dividend:Share of the profits alloted to each share in a joint stock company.
Dynamo:A generator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Deficiency disease:A disease which caused by the lack of certain ingriedients in the diet,usually apply to the vitamins or fast in food stuffs such as beri-beri, rickets and scurvy.
Delirium:It implies serious mental disturbance occuring under the influence of poisonous drugs, and in the course of some infections disease.
Diabetes:It is caused by the inability of the body to make use of sugar in the food, consequently,this sugar accumulates in the blood and is finally passed out in the urine.
Diarrhoea:Loose stools due to many causes.
Diptheria: An acute infections disease caused by the growth of a membrane inthe throat. it may result in death,since brteathing is stopped.
Dysentery:Passing of stools with blood and mucus.
Electroial college:A body of electors limited in number meeting in one place to choose a public official.American President is elected by an electorial College.
Embargo:Ban on shipping imposed by a country or group of countries as a retaliatory measure against certain unfriendly countries.
Equity shares:These are ordinary shares which take maximum risk,with no guarantee of dividend but also maximum return when there are high profits.
Espionage:Spying is practised by all countries to get vital information on military scientific ploitical matters in unfriendly enemy countries.
Extradation:It is demand made by country for return of criminals living in a foregien country.
Fascism:it is an italian ploitical through developed by mussolini in which the state the represented by one man is supreme and the individual has no right apart from what theb dictator might allow.
Fedralism:It is a system of government in which several autonomous states join and surrender some powers ( for example currency defence foreign relations etc to central authority for common good.
Fifth coloumn:It applies tom those people who work against the interests of their own country by carrying on false propaganda. they are sympathesiers of the enemy.
Floor crossing:It means defection i.e members changing parties for personal ends inthe legislature. Floor crossing is generally considered derogatory.
Four freedoms:These were first propagated bby US president Roosevelt freedom of speech, freedom of worship freedom from want and freedom from fear. individual development depends on these freedoms.
Fourth Estate: The press for it powers to mould public opnion for or against the existing government.
Gamma rays:These are short wave electro magnetic radiations similar to light and X-ras. The penetrating power of these rays is extremely high.They can penetrate through 6 inches of steel. Gammma rays are not deflected by strong electric or magnetic field.
Gonorrhea:A veneral disease.
Gout:A disease with inflammation especially of great toe.
Gynaecology:The study of diseases of women.
Genocide:Extermination of minority or areligious community by mass killing or by passing repressive measures. Hitler wiped out the Jewish minority from all those countries which he conqured during world warII.
Hegemony:Dominant influence especially of one state over others.
Heliotherapy:The treatment of disease by the sun's rays.
Hemiplegia:paralysis of one side of the body.
Homoepathy:A system of medicine to discovered by Hannemann agerma physician. it is based on two assumptions.
1.Disease mmay be cured by producing the symptoms of the same disease by giving drugs.
2.Drugs have more potent effect when given in small doses.
Hormone:This is a chemical substance produced by an endocrine or ductless gland. The substance causes a physical reaction in another organ o which it is carried by the blood stream. insulin secreted by the pencreas is a good example are thryoxin adrenaline (aderenal glands) and pituitary cretions.
Imperialism:The practice of acquiring colonies and dependeces with the purpose of exploitation.
Inflation:It means defection i.e members changing parties for personal ends inthe legislature. Floor crossing is generally considered derogatory.
Interpol:International police organisation to track and apprenhend criminals.operaing internatinally and evading their arrest.
Iron curtain:A term applied to the countries which do not like to give information about their internal affairs to other countries.
Isolationism:The policy of pracice of remaining aloof in international field.
Joint electroate:It is asystem inwhich allvoter cast vote in a common constituency. In india joint electroate system is prevalent.
League of Nations:It was established in 1920 to preserve peace and promote international co-operation.It was a world body.
Lobbying:It is mehod of influencing other legislatures by persuasion and pressure for their support in impotant legislative matters.
Mandate:It is a command from superior officer or judge, to an inferior, Also it is right given to person to act in the name of another. it is a power conferred upon a state by the league of nations to govern a region elsewhere.
Manifesto:A written public declration of the programmes intensions, opinions or motives of a party or body.
Marxism:The socialist doctrine based on the theories of Karl Marx. His ideas are that all wealth is produced by labour. To him, market value a thing is determined by labour spend on it.since the labour is deprived of its fruits by capitalisms, the workers must prepare for class war in which capitalism will be destroyed .
McMohan line:The indo china border-line drawn in 1914 at a British Tibetan Chinese conference. it was named after a british Administrator . china having taken Tibet, does not recogonise the line, while india insists on its being a border line.
Mixed Economy:A sort of economic system in which public and private sectors exist side by side.
Money Bill:A bill relating to imposition of tax or containing provisions of a monetary nature .
Moratorism:Officially fixed period during which the buisness transactions can be completed.
Motel:A sort of hotel for tourists, in which arrangement for the stay of tourists there. also garrage arrangements exist.
Naturalisation:Act or process by which an alien is allowed to enjoy the previleges of a natural-born citizen.
Neutrality:To maintain unpariality when there is a way between two countries that they would not wage war with each other or one another.
Notary public:He is an officer whose duty is to certify deeds and documents.
Oligarchy:It is an government by a small exclusive class means a small body of men who have the supreme power of state in their hands.
Ombudsman:A sort of vigilence officer with wide powers, to help and protect the individual agains official oppression. This is a Swedish Institution. In india Lok Ayukts have been appointed in many states.
Ordmance:It is an urgent measure promulgated by ahead of state on his own authority to meet emergency conditions.
Paper Gold:It is the special drwing rights given to member counties of the international monetary fund in proportion to other quota in the funds so that the expanding world trade can be financed an international faith.
Plebiscite:A direct vote of the qualified voters in regard to some important public question .
Parliamentory Government:A form of government in which the president, who is the real executive cabinet is responsible to the legislature. i is also called from of government.
Presidental Government:A form of government in which the president, who is the real executive head is independent of the control of the legis lature as we find U.S.A.
Questionnaire:A prepared set of questions circulated among the public to eliciy views or information upon a particular subject.
Rationalism:Term signified process of rendering buisness industries morte efficient and economical by such means as modernisation of plants.
Reparation:It is compensation to be paid by a vanquished nation to a victor country .
Republic:A sovereign country whose head of state is president ,elected for a fixed numbers of years.
Rule of Law:It implies that an individual can be arrested or punished by the government only by the due process of law.Every citizen is equal before the eyes of law.
Security:It is gurantee in the form of cash bonds, property etc. which is kept as a pledge for repayment of debt or protection against finacial loss.
Self Determination:It points towards right of a national group or country to determine its own fate and form its own government. self determination is in contrast to colonical rule.
Socialism:A theory which advocates that all key industries, commerce and important nations services like Health nd Education should be under state control.India is also a Socialistic Country.
State trading:When the states undertakes the purchase and sale of certain commodities so as to control market prices and to assure a fair deal both to the producer and consumer.
Sterling area:Nation which keeps their exchange reserves in London in British sterling instead of gold. Such nations are generally members of the commonwealth .
Territorial Waters:The seas adjacent to a country over which it has an exclusive jurisdiction.The genral convention is at territorial rights extend for three miles from the coast lines measured from water marks
Third World:A sizeable non-aligned group of nations comprising the developing countries is known as the Third World.The countries exporting oils are now being reffered to as constituting the fourth world.
Trade mark:It is a distinctive mark or signor name adopted in respect of a product and registred as such is order to safeguard interests and rights of manufactures.
Unicameral:ASa legislature having a single house.
Urban ceiling:It is a ceiling imposed by government Urban people limiting their property beyond which they can not hold.
Ultimatum:Final terms offered by one party to another before it decides on unilateral course of action.
Underground:It is sort of organi9sed secret resistance movement aganst a government or force in power .
Unitary State:In a Unitary state all authority rests with the central government.
Whip:Thisn term is used in relation to legislature. It reffers to a party official nominated to enforce disciplone among the member that particular party at the time of voting.
White paper:It is a document published by the govenment giving complete information to the public and members of the parliament on matters of Natinal importance.
Writ:An order issued by a court commanding a person whom it is addressed to act or abstain from acting in some way.
X-ray:It is a form of electro magnetic radiation similarly light but of shorter wavelength and capable of penetrating solids of ionizing gases.
Zionism:it is a world movement of Jews.it was started towards the end of the nineteenth century. The aim to find a home stat for the Jews in the world. it resulted in the established of israel in 1948.
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