Dynasties and Rules In Medieval India:
Mahmud of Gazni:
Mahmud came to the throne of gazni in 997A.d.
.He started his raids in india in 1001 by attacking and killing jaipala the king of punjab in the battle of waihind.
.In the 11 battle of waihind (1008) he defeated anandpala (Hindushahni ruler of punjab.
.He led 17 expeditions betwen 1001 and 1027. HE pludered thaneshwar mathura kannauj and somnath.
.The plunder of somnath temple (dedicated to shiva) in 1025 situated on the sea coast of Kathiarwar was famous.
.His objective was to plunder the riches of temples and places and was not interested in expainding his empire to india.
Mohammed Ghori:.He was also a ruler of a small kingdom in Afganistan.But he was interested in conquerring northern india and adding to his kingdom.
.Prithiviraj Chauhan,who was the king of delhi at that time, recieved contigents from other rajput kings defeated him in the i battle of Tarain (1191).
.But mohammed Ghori defeated pri4thviraj in the 11 battle of Tarain in 1192.
.Died in 1206 leaving Qutab-ud-din aibak the charge.
The Ilbari Dynasty or Slave Dynasty qutab-ud-din aibak(1206-1210):.Lahore and later delhi were his capitals.
.Famous for his generousity and earned the sobriquet of lakh-baksh(giver of lakhs).
.Laid the foundation of qutab minar after the name of famous sufi saint,Khwaja Qutbudin Bakhtiyar kaki.
.Died of a horse fall at Lahore,while playing chaugan(polo).
.Built the first mosque in india-quwwat-ul-Islam(delhi) and Adhai din ka Jhonpara(at Ajmer).
IItumish(1210-1236):.He formed Turkan-Chahalagni or Chalisa (a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles to suppress nobles).
.Divided his empire into iqtas an assignment of land in lieu of salary,which he distributed to his officers.
.He introduced the silver tanka and the cooper jital-2 basic coins of the Sultanate.
Raziya(1236-1240):.She disregarded pudah,began to adorn male attire and rode out in public on elephant back.
.She promoted Jalaluddin Yakut an Abyssian,to the important office of superintendent of the stables. it provoked the turkish officers.
.She promoted jalauddin Yakut, an Abyssinian to the impotant office of superindent of stabies. it provoked the Turkish officers.
.She had to marry Altunia tha Governor of Bhatinda.
.She was killed along with her husband by Bahram shah a son of iilutimish.
.she was the first and the last muslim woman ruler of medieval india.
Balban(1266-1286):. He ordered the sepration of military depratment from the finance department (diwan-i-wizarat),and the former placed under a ministry for military affairs(diwan-i-ariz).
.The declared the Sultan as the representative of god on eart.He impressed upon the people that king was the deputy of God(niybat-i-khudai) and the people were required to kneel and touch the ground with their head to greet the Sultan.
THE KHALJI DYNASTY Jalaluddin Firuz khalji(1290-1316):. He was the first ruler to put forward the view that since a larger majority f people in India are Hindus,the state in India could not a be a total Islam state.
Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316):.Added an entrance door to Qutab Minar,Alai Darwaza and built his capital at Siri.
.Also built Hauz Khas.Mahal Hazaar Satoon and Jamait Khana Mosque.
.First Sultan to have permanent army-paid soldiers(Chera) and each horse(Dagh) was kept (first time ).His Land Renenve System is very famous.
.First Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from politics.He procilaimed-"Kingship knows no kinship".
.Though Alauddin was illiterate,he was a parton of learning and art.These were many great poets in his court.Both Amir Khusrau and Mir Hasan Dehlvi enjoyed his patronage.
THE TUGHLAQ DYNASTY gHIYASUDDIN tUGHLAQ(1320-1325):. Took keen interest in the construction of canals and formulated a famine policy.
.Built the fortified city of Tughlabad and made it his capital.
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq(1325-1350):.Regarded as the most controversial figure in indian history,because of his five ambitious projects:
(1)Increase in the land revenue in the Doab:The measure proved to be ill-timed,as Doab was passing through famine which was follwed by plague.
(2)Transfer of capital to Devagiri (Daulatabad) in 1327:But Daulatabad was found to be unsuitable because it was not possible tp control N.India from ther.So he decied to retransfer the Capital to Delhi.
(3)Introducing of token currency:Token currency meant introduction of bronze tankas in place of silver tanks with equal value.But this experiment failed,due to counterfeit coins.So he withdrew the scheme and all token coins were exchanged for silver coins were exchanged for silver coins.
Planning of expedition for the conquest of Khurasan and Iraq:But the scheme was abdonened as conditions in Iraq improved (paid the extra army for one full year).
The plan for the conquest of qarachil(kumaon hills):It is also met with disastrous end.
The Sayyad Dynasty:.Khizr Khan founded this short lived dynasty and claimed to have descended from the prophet of islam.
The Lodhi Dynasty bahlul lodhi(1451-1489):.They were afganas by race(considered first afghan dynasty of india).
.Revived Sultanate to quit an extent.
Skinder Lodhi(1489-1517):.Noblest of three lodhi rulers.
.Introduced the Gaz-i-Sikandri(sikandras yard) of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields.
.In 1504 he founded the city of agra and made it his capital.
Ibrahim lodhi(1517-1526):.Was defeated and killed by babur in the 1 battle of panipat in 1526.
The Mughal Empire:
Babur(1526-1530.Defeated ibrahim ldhi in first battle of panipat in 1526 and introduced gunpowder in india.
.Defeated sangram singh (Rana Sanga) of Mewar in the Battle of khnaua in 1527.
.Defeated another rajput ruler medini rai battle of chandereri in 1527.
.Defeated the afghan chief under the mahmud lodhi(brother of ibrahim lodhi) in the battle of ghangra in 1529.
.Died in 1530.Buried at aram bagh in agra;later his body was taken to aram bagh,kabul.
.His memior the Tazuk-i-Baburi in turki language is aclassic of world literature.
Humayun(1530-1556):.He did a blunder by dividing his empire among his three brothers Kamran Hindal and Askari.
.Built Dinapnah at delhi as hyis second capital.
.He was attacked by sher shah at chausa(Battle of chausas) in 1539 but escaped.
.But in the battle of Knaujj(or Bilgrama) in 1540 he was defeated by sher shah and had to flee.
Akbar(1556-1605):.He was coronated when he was just 14 years old.
.Bairam khan represented him in the second battle of panipat in 1556 against HemuVikramditya. Hemu was defeated.
.Between 1556-1560 Akbar ruled under Bairam Khan's regency.
.won in gujrat in 1572.it was in order to commemorate his victory of gujrat that akbar got the Buland Darwaza constructed at Fatehpur sikri.
.Formulated an order called Din-i-iilhi or Tauhind-i-llahi in 1582. Birbal , Abul Fazal and Faizi joined the order.
.His land revenue system was known as todar mal bandobast or Zabti system.
.Also introduced the Mansabdary System to organise the nobility as well as the army.
Jahagir(1605-1627):.He executed the fifth Sijh Arjun Dev, who had helped the revolting Prince Khusrau.
.His gratest failure was the loss of khandhar to persia in 1622.
.The most important event in jahagir life was marriage to mehr-un-nisa the widow of sher afgani in 1611.the title of nur jahan was conferred to her.
.Capital Hawkins(1608-1611)and sir Thomas Roe(1615-1619) visited his court.
.Painting reached its zeinth during his reign.
Shahjahan(1628-1658):.His reign is considered the Golden Age of Mughal Empire.
.2Frenchmen Bernier and Tavernier and an italian adventurer Manucci visited during his reign.
.Built Tajmahal Moti masjid at agra jamma masjid and red fort at delhi etc.
.There was brutal war of succession among his four sons(dara.shuja,aurangjeb,and murad)during the last days of reign.Shahnjahan like dara but arangjeb came out victorious. thus he had to spend last 8 years of his life in prison.
Aurangjeb Alamgir(1658-1707):.In this rule various rebillions took place- jat peasantry at Mathura satnami peasantry in punjab and bundelas in Bundelkhand.
.He caused serious rift in the Mughal-Rajput alliance by his policy of annexation of Marwar in 1639 after the death of jaswant singh.
.In 1675 he ordered the arrest and execution of ninth Sikh guru, guru Tegh Bahadur.
.He was called Darvesh or a Zinda pir.HE also fobade sati.
.He empire lost power after Aurangjeb rule.His successors were weak and incapable rulers.