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    Geography of Punjab
    Introduction: Punjab is located in the nothwest of india surrounded by pakistan on the west, the indian states of jammu and kashmir on the north,Himachal pradesh on its norheast and Haryana and Rajastan to its south.Roughly triangular in shape, the states extend from 29degree 30N to 32degree 32N latitude and 73degree 55E Logitude.Its small and compact size(50362 sq. kms: 1.54% of country's total graphical area)lends easy accessibility to all parts of the state a fact which has great significance from the point of view of socio economic development and defence. its average elevation is 300m from the sea level.Most of the land of punjab is fertile plain but one can find the south-east region being semi-arid and desert landscapes. A belt of hills extends along the notheast at the foot of the Himalayas.

    Physical Features:Although at the macro-regionallevel,the punjab plain is predominantly flat and featureless land, it reveals a lot of diversity of relief when viewed from micro--regional elevels. The whole punjab region may be divided into following landfrom types: 1. The shivalik Hills 2. The Plains

    1.The Shivalik Hills: The rgion covers the outer range of shivalik hills and is approximately 6 to 10 Kms in the width running along easter border of the state. The Shivalik region covers the easteremost areas of four districts-Rupnagar,Nawashaher,Hoshiarpur,and Gurdaspur.It run like a wall, N-w to S-E, seperating the Himalayas from the plains means seprating the Sirsa and Una valley of Himachal Pardesh from the plains.The slope of hills is gentler towards the punjab plains than the side that faces the Himachal Pradesh.

    2.The Plains:The punjab plain is a part of the great Indo-Gangetic plain that is a synclinal basin formed by the elevations of Himalyas.The Punjab plain lies between 180-300 metres above sea level.The land slopes from east to west. The gradient is much more in the east than in the west. The region covers nearly the 70% of total area of the state.
    1.Majha(Upper Bari Doab)
    2.Doaba(Bist Jaladharb Doab)
    3.Malwa plains

    Majha(upper Bari Doab):Spreads over 4 districts:Gurdaspur,pathankot,Amritsar and Tarn Taran.It is bounded by river in the west and River Beas in the east and sutlej in the south.

    Doab(Bist Jalandhar Doab):is atriangular area between river Beas in the north-west,River Satluj in the south.it slopes south-westward.The region is almost flat.The region has very fertile and mature soils.

    Malwa Plains:The region lies between river satluj in the north and river Ghaggar in the south.The areas slopes south-westwards.Malwa plains cover the largest part of punjab.The region spreads over 14 districts: Ferozepur,fridkot,Fazilka,Bathinda,Barnala,Sangrur,Mansa,patiala,Mohali,moga,muktsar,ludhiana,rupnagar and fatehgarh sahib.

    Soils:In punjab the soil characterstics are influenced to avery limited extent by the topography vegetation and parent rock.The variation in soil profile charaterstics are much more pronounced because of the regional climatic differences. Punjab is divided into three distinct regions on the basis of soils types.The regions are:South-Western punjab Central Punjab and Eastern Punjab punjab falls under seismic zones II,III,and IV Zones II and III are reffered to as low damage risk zone while zone IV reffered to as high damage risk zone.The three major seasons in punjab are:summer,rainy and winter.

    ClimateThe three major seasons in punjab are:summer,rainy and winter.The climate of the plains is excessively hot and dry between april and august with temprature as high as 49centigrate.The rains of the monsoon season begin at the end of june and continue till august.

    DrainageThe indian punjab was left with only three brivers sutleg,Beas and ravi after partition.Sutlej rises on the north slope of the himalayas in lake langa in south western tibet and crosses himachal pradesh before beginning its flow throgh the punjab plain near nangal.

    EconomyThe state has number of small medium and large scale industrial units.Major industries in the state include metals manufacturing textiles hosiery yarn sports goods hand tools bicycles and light engineering goods.

    AgriculturePartap singh Karion hit the nail right on its head when he said,'we have no culture we have agriculture.Agriculture is indeed the backbone of punjab economy.

    Canal System and Multipurpose projects in PunjabPunjab is served with an excellent canal network.The total length of canals and the distributtariesw in the state is about 4600 kilometers.

    Upper-Bari Doab Canal(UBDC)It takes off from river ravi at madhopur.It was constructed by maharaja ranjit Singh and later renovated and extented during the early days of British Raj in 1859.It is divided into three principal braches:the main branch,kasur branch and sabraon branch.

    Bist Doab canalThe area between the rivers beas and the sutlej has only one canal system.It is the bist doab canal which takes off the right bank of the river sutlej at ropar.

    Sirhind CanalThis canal system is one of the biggest in contry.It irrigates vast areas in mansa Muktsar Bhatinda fridkot firozepur sangur barnala patiala and ludhiana district.

    Bhakara CanalThe biggest landmark in the punjab irrigation system is the bhakra canal with its headworks at nangal.It is a part of the Bhakra nangal project that is India biggest multipurpose river valley scheme.

    Makhu CanalA barrage at harike across the river satluj,nearly 3 km below the confluence of rievers Beas and satluj has been constructed.The work started in 1950 and the cank became functional in 1958.

    Shah Nahar Canal: This canal takes off from the left bank of the river beas about 6.5 km downstram of the pong dam.It provids water to the semi hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh and the adjoining areas of Hosiarpur district in punjab.

    Harike Wildlife SancturyIt is situated on Amritsar-firozpur road.The area of sanctury is 86 sq km.It is a Ramasr site ramasar convention is a convention on wetlands of international importance adopted in irnian city of ramasar in 1971 and came into force in 1975 of international importance.

    The absence of basic raw materials and great distances involved to transport coal to the state have been the two major geographical impediments in the development of industrial sector especially the basic and heavy industry.Major factors for the growth of small and medium industrial units are the excellent transportation facilities social infrasture government polices including lucrative for the new buisness.

    The progress in economy is proportinal to the avalability of power.Punjab gets its power supply from three resources.These are its own hydro and thermal projects which contribute about 52% of the total supply.common pool projects means that several states have pooled their resouces for the development of these projects and are sharing the power according to their investment like bhakra nangal project.