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Indus Valley Civilization : This type of civilization flourished between 2000 B.C and 1500 B.C.
Nothing was known about the indus valley civilisation till 1922-23. The archaeological Department of India carried out excavations in the indus valley and brought out the ruins of two old cities ,viz Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The First place is in Larkana district of sind province in pakistan while Harappa is in Montgomery district of sind province in pakistan while Harrapa is in Montogomery district w. PUNJAB. The ruins of buildings and other things likes household articles, implements. Weapons of war, gold and silver ornaments seals toys, pottery idols etc, show that some four to five thousand years ago a highly developed civilization flourished in this area.
Aryans :One eminent histroian mentions that there were constant wars beteen the indo aryans and the Dravidans in Rigvedic and later vedic priods, which wintnessed their settlement in punjab and expansion into the indo-Gangetic valley. The Dravidians offered a dogged resistance to the aryan invaders who because of their better weapons, better organisation and freshness of vigour prevailed over the enemy.
The aryans fought on foot or on horseback. Small charious of the capacity of carrying a driver and the fighting man were used. There are numerous references to arms and weapons in the hymns. such as armours and helmets as defensive weapons and javelins swords battle axes, bows and arrows as offensive weapons. King was the leader in the war Priests often accompained him to pray and to officiate in sacrifies. The king and the nobles fought on chariots. The common people fought on foot.
Caste system: Caste System developed with the passage of time in india.The society was based on professions but later on it was given a religious interpreation.The main caste were Brahaman, Kshtriya, vaished, Shuatara.
Chandara Gupta Maurya(322-289): He was a great King who founded Mauryan Dynasty.It was Kautilya who brought him to the throne. He was responsible for defeating seleukos.Megasthenes visited india in his times. He was a great soldier and administrator.
Ashoka, the Noble King: He was the noble king of mauryans dynasty. He fought a war against Kalinga but later on renounced it for ever and turned towards Buddism. He did a lot to spread this religion. His rign is described as one of the brightest interludes in the troubled history of mankind.
Kanva dynasty (about 72-28 B.C): One Hisorian has reffered to this dyanasty. The founder of this new dynasty of Magadha was Vasudeva Precious little is known about the details of the kanva rule.It appears that the territory was confined to Magadha and its neighbourhood but as occcupying the throne of Magvadha, they have been mentioned in the puranas as imperial dynastic rulers. The totallength of the reign according to the imperial dynastic rulers.The total llength of the reign according to the puranas was 45 years.
Kushan Dynasty: Kushan were foreiners who came to india in firstly century A.D.Kaniska was a great king , who did much to spread Buddhism.
Gupta Dynasty:The dyntasy ruled from 4th to 6th centuryA.d. The most important kings were Saudra Gupta and Chandra Gupta Vikramaditya. Fahein visited india in 'Vikamdiyas' times. He was a grat patron of art and literature.
Chalukya Dynatsy:This dynasty established its kingdom in Tamil areas near River Cauvery. It was a big power in the south Ramaraja the great,reigned during 11th century A.D. The famous temple at Tanjore was built by him.
Islam comes into existence:One writter has summed up the rise of Islam in a few words-.
'Islam, the Muslim religion was founded by Prophet Mohammed was borning Mecca in Arabia in 571 A.D at atime when teh Arab was a land of superstitions and ignorance. Full of undesirable customs and practises.'
The prophet taught that there was one God,the absolute ruler to mankind. He laid emphasis on equality.Before his death.he had brought the whole of arebia Bunder his sway.
Muslims Invade India:Muhammed-bin-qasim invaded india in 711 A.D.and controlled sindh and Multan. It was later on that mahmud of Ghazni carried his raids on india during the years 1000-1027A.D.
Delhi Sultanate: Many Dynasties ruled over delhi during 1206 A.D and 1526A.D.The dynasty were as follows:-
Slave Dnasty:This dyntasy ruled over India during 1206 1290 A.D.Qutab-ud-Din founded the dynasty. He established a greatKingdom and also built Qutab-Minar.Then came on the scene the famous illimish who was a slave of qutab-ud -Din.He consolidated the conquests and rose to be a great king. Razia Begum the daughter of illltumish was enthroned.She being a lady was not tolerated by nobles.
Rise of Sikhs:Guru Nanak Dev was the founder of Sikh religion. He favoured the abolition of caste system and stood for social justice. He reached for the refinement of the soul.The other Gurus in succession were Guru Angad Dev. Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram dass,guru Arjan Dev; Guru Hargovind, Guru Har rai,Guru Harkishan, Guru Teg Bahadur and Guru Gobind singh.They all developed the religious and social aspects of sikh religion.
Father:- Mehta Kaalu Ji
Mother:- Mata Tripta Ji
Place of birth:-Talwandi Rai Bhoi
Main Contribution:-Japji Sahib,Asa Di Vaar,Barh Mah,Sidh Gosht
Sons:-Sri Chand Ji,Laxmi Das Ji
City Founded:-Kartarpur in Pakistan
Met First Mughal King Babur:-At Sayyadpur
Appointed disciple Lehna:-A successor,name him'Angad'(Guru Angad Dev Ji)
Banda Bairagi:Banda bairagi came to the scene and avenged the brutalities of the Mughlas on Sikhs. According to S.Khushwant Singh,'fo three months Banda was subjected to systematic torture in the the hope that he would give some clue to the wealth he was reputed to have accumelated... Before exclusion Banda was offered pardon if he renonces his faith and accepted Islam.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh:He conqured Lahore in 1799 and made this place his capital. He established a great kingdom in punjab.He was very liberal,geneous and just.He conqurred Amritsar and with the passage of time briught the entire area between sutlej and Jehlum under his away.He had to reckon with the English and at last entered into a treaty with them in april 1809.Sutlej was fixed as the bundary of the state.
English Period:Various Governor Generals were deputed by the english to rule over india. Canning ruled during 1858-62. Sir John Lawrence during 1864-69.Lord Mayo 1869-72.Lord North Brook 1872-76,Lord Lytton 1876-80,Lord Ripon,Lord Dufferin1884-88,Landsdowne 1894-98,Lord elign 1894-99,Lord curzon 1899-1905, Lord Minto 1905-10,Lord Hordinge 1910-16, Lord Chelmsford 1916-21, Lord Reading 1921-26 Lord Irwin 1926-31,Lird Willingdom 1931-36, Lord Linlithgow 1936-43,Lord Linlithgow 1936-43,Lord Wavell 1943-47 and Lord Mountbatten 1947-48.
Lord William Bentick:Lord William Bentick is famous for abloshing sati and uprooting Thuggi Lord Ripon is notorious for various Anti-India Measures.
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