The Coming of the Mughals
Babar (AD 1526-1530)
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babar,the founder of the Mughal empire in India was born in AD 1483.He was a descendent of Timur from the side of his father and of Chenghiz khan from the side of his mother.When he was 11 years old,he inherired the kingdom of Farghana from his father,Umar Sheikh Mirza.TAt the time of his death in AD 1530,he was the ruler of the entire region extending from Afghanistan to Bihar.
Humayun (AD 1530-1540 and AD 1556-1556)
Humayun succeeded Babar in December 1530.He had to face a number of problems.Babar had not been able to consolidate his kingdom.All the three brothers of Humayun-Kamran,Hindal and Askari-had an eye on the throne.Humayun had to pass nearly 15 years in exile (AD 1540-1555).Sher Shah died in AD 1545 and was succeeded by a series of weak successors.
Akbar the Great
Akbar was proclaimed king in AD 1556 when he was onl 13 years of age.Bairam Khan was appointed as the regent.
Expansion and Consolidation of the Empire
Akbar first conflict came in AD 1556 at Panipat.Here,he fought against Hemu,the general of the Afgan force.Hemu had made himself stong in the territories earlier ruled by Sher Shah.Hemu was defeated and Akbar-re-occupied Delhi and Agra,which Humayun had lost to Sher Shah.
Mughal administration under Akbar was a mix of Central Asian ideas and Indian tradtions.It was a centralization monarchy (the king enjoying absolute power)in which the welfare of the people was given primary important.
Akbar had a liberal attiude in religious matters.He belived that since every religion lead toward GOd, the followers of different religions should live peacefully with one another.His main aim in suggesting such a code was to ea\stablish a unifying bond for the people of his empire.He hoped to achieve unity in a country of diverse religions.Din-iIlahi faded-out after Akbar.
Architecture during Akbar's reign saw the blending of Persian,Central Asian and Indian style.THis is clearly visible from the building at Fatepur Sikri,the new capital that Akbar built near Agra.The building here,such as the Ibadar Khana,Buland Darwaza,Panch Mahal,palace of Birbal's daughter,Jodha Bai's Palace,Diwan-i-Khas,etc ate built of red sandstone.
The Mughal Empire after Akbar
After the death of Akbar in AD 1605,the Mughal empire witnessed the reigns of three important Mughal rulers-Jhangir (AD 1605-1627),Shah Jahan (AD 1628-1657) and Aurangzeb (AD 1658-1707)All three were capable rulers and worked for the welfare of the people.
Hahangir (AD 1605-1627)
Shah Jahan (AD 1628-1657)
Auranzeb (AD 1658-1707)
Decline of the Mughal Empire
The Mughal empire decline reapidly after Aurangzeb death.The Marathas extended their influence up to the Gangetic plains,the heartland of the empire.The Mughal noble began to fight among themselves and ambitious governors began to function independently The weakness of the Mughal empire was fully exposed when Nadir Shah defeated the Mughal emperor,Muhammad Shah and looted Delhi in AD 1739.
Bahadur Shah I (AD 1707-1712)
Jahandar Shah and Farrukh Siyar (AD 1712-1719)
Muhammad Shah (AD 1720-1748)
Period From AD 1748-1858
End of the Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire flourished in the sixeenth and seventeenth centuries AD,By the beginning of the eighteenth century AD ,howerever.it had begun to break up.A number of factors worked togeather to hasten the decline and the eventual downfall of the once mighty and strong Mughal empire.
.Aunangzeb died in AD 1707.After his death,the empire decline rapidly.
.The Mughal state was liberal in nature under Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
.Land and trade were the two source of revenue.
.Akbar ascended the Mughal throne in AD 1556.Bairam Khan acted as the regent.