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Takhts
Singh Sahib Giani Gurdachan Singh Ji,Jathedar (Actiing) Sri Akal Takht Sahib,Sri Amritsar Singh sahib Giani Tarlocahan Singh Ji Jathedar Takht Sri Kesgarh Sahib,Sri Anandpur Sahib Singh Sabha Giani Iqbal Singh Ji.Jathedar Takht Sri Patna Sahib,Patna Singh Sahib Giani Kulwant Isngh Ji,Jathedar Takht Sri Hazoor Sahib (Nanded), Maharashtra Singh Sahib Giani Balwant Singh Ji Nandgarh,Jathedar Takht Sri Damdma Sahib,Talwandi Sabo (Bathinda)
Babar Akaliu Movement:.Babbar Akali Movement was a gadical outrrowth of the Akali movement fro the reform of Sikh place of worship during the early 1920's aiming to have the shirnes released from the control of priests who had become lax over the genaration,was peacefull inits charcter and straegy.In the course of the prolonged campaign,Akalis true to their vows patiently suffered physical injuriy and violence at the hands of the priests as well as of government authority.The incidents at Tarn Taran (Januaray 1921) and Nankana Sahib (February 1921) in which many Sikhs lost their lives led to the emergence of a group which rejected non-violence and adopted violence as a creed.The member of this secret group called themselves Babbar Akalis,Babbar meaning lion.Their targets were the British officers and their Indian informes.They were strongly attached to their Sikh faith and shared an intense patriotic fervour.
Radicals of this movements were led by Master Mota Singh and Kishan Singh Gargajj, a retired havaldar major of the Indian army.They held a secret meeting and made up a plan to avenge themselves upon those responsible fotr the killing at Nakana Sahib.Among those on their list were J.W. Bowring,the superindent of policee in the Intelligence departmant and C.M. King,the commissioner.However,those assigned to the task fell into the police net.Arrest warrants were issued against Master Mota Singh and Kishan Singh as well ,but both of them went underground.
In November 1921,kishan Singh formed a secret organization called Chakracrti Jatha and started working among the peasantry and soldier inciting them against the foreign rulers.While Kishan Singh and his band carried on their campaing in Jalandahr district with frequent incursions into the villages of Ambala and kapurthala state,karam Singh of Daulapur orgainzed a band of extremist Sikhs in Hoshiarpur on similar lines.
The trial arrested Babbar Akalis had already begun inside lahore Central Jail on 15 august 1923.62 person were challenged originally and the names of 36 more were added in January 1924.
The Babbar were hanged in 1926.They were kishan Singh Gargaji,Babu Santa Singh Dalip Singh Dhamian,Karam Singh manko,Nand Singh Ghurial and Dharam Singh Hayatpur.The Babber Akali Jatha ceased to exist but it had left a permanent mark on the history of the Sikhs and of the nationalist movement in India.
Guru Ka Bagh Morcha:Guru Ka Bagh morcha in Ghukkevali village,Tehsil Ajnala District Amritsar ia ans account of a major campaign,just one of the many struggles by the Sikhs in the early 1920's to seek justicein regaining control of their own house of worship.
Many Gurudwares had alredy been freed without much of a problem but this one was proving to be bigge hurdle.Ghikkevali village located about 20km from Anritsar has two historic Gurudwaras located close to each other.One commemorates the vivsit of Guru Arjun in 1585 whilr the other is assiciated with a visit from Guru Tegh Bahadur in 1664.
Like most Gurugwaras ,the management of these two had passed,long ago,during mid 18th century,into the hands of mahats who belonged to the monastic order of Udasi Sikhs,an order started by one of Guru nank's sons.The order had once closely associted with Sikhism.After 1849,fall of the Sikh kindom of Punjab,the mahants had stared to separate themselves from the Sikh religion and had started including corrupt rituals and ceremonies in the Gurudwaras that Sikhs found sacrilegious.The grant of jagirs to such sacred place as well as the offerings of the devotees had made the custodians wealthy men who had become accustomed to luxury.may of them had begun thinking themselved as the owners of the Gurudwaras and made it like their House.At Guru-ka-Bagh, the Sikh reform's capacity for surrering and resistance was put to the test.Whilre many Gurudwaras had been regained through peacful resistance,this one was going to be a far more challenging task.
The goverment had the excuse not to interfere with the Sikhs who could now go unmolested to Guru-ka-Bagh to cut wood in the jungla for their Langar.The Sikhs' gain was not confined merely to the immediate point invoved.The moral implication of the issue was far more important.
In April 1923,Punjab Government issued order for the release of the prisoners.This ended the morcha of Guru ka Bagh in which more than 5000 sikhs went to jail.
Jaito Morcha:Jaito Morcha is the name given to the akali agition that took place in February 1924 for the restoration of the throne of Maharaja Ripudaman Singh of Nabha,A Sikh princely stste in the Punjab.
The Maharaja had strong pro-Akali sympathies and had overtly supported the Grur-ka-Bagh Morcha and donned a black turban as a mark of pritest against the massecre of the reformists at Nankana Sahib.His contacts with the Indian nationalist leaders and involvement in popular caueses had irked the British government.
On 9 july 1923 he was forced to abdicate in favour of his minor son,Partap Singh.Although the GBritish officials pronounced his abdication to be voluntary, the Akalis and other nationalist section condemned it as an act of high handeddness on the part of the government.
Master Tara Singh denounced the measure as equivalent to Maharaja Duleed Singh's removal from the throne of the Punjab.The committee set up to have the Maharaja of Nabha retored to the gaddi(throne) appointed 29 July,1923 to be observed in all the principal towns of the Punjab as a day of prayer in his behalf.
The Secretary of State directed the Viceroy "to put an effective stop to the Akali operation by the arrest and prosecution of the all the organizers as abettors",the Punjab Government acting on the directive declared both the Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committtee and the Shiroman Akali Dal as unlawful association.Akali jathas were stopped on entering Nabha territory,taken into custody and beaten by police.They were then left offf in distant deserts without food or water.To intensify the agitation.the Akalis increased the size of the jathas.
The administrator of Nabha Wilson ordered the army the army to open fire.In two volleys of fire lasting about five minutes,servals fell dead.The official estimate of the casualties was 19 dead and 29 injured.The Akali figure were much higher.The firing on the peaceful jatha of Akalis caused resentment throughout the country and many more jathas consisting os Sikhs From all over the world joined the agitation and came to Nabha for courting arres.
Aurangjeb Alamgir(1658-1707):.In this rule various rebillions took place- jat peasantry at Mathura satnami peasantry in punjab and bundelas in Bundelkhand. .He caused serious rift in the Mughal-Rajput alliance by his policy of annexation of Marwar in 1639 after the death of jaswant singh. .In 1675 he ordered the arrest and execution of ninth Sikh guru, guru Tegh Bahadur. .He was called Darvesh or a Zinda pir.HE also fobade sati. .He empire lost power after Aurangjeb rule.His successors were weak and incapable rulers.


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