The Vedic Age
Most histrians believe that the Aryans lived in North-east Iran or in CentralAsia.Due to difficulties in their original homeland,they migrated to other places.Some moved to Europe,others to western Asia and some moved to India.
The Aryans composed the four Vedas-Rig Veda,Sama Veda,Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.These texts contain religious hymns in praise of different gods and goddesses.These hymns were passed on orally from one generation to another until thay were finally written down.
EARLY VEDIC PERIOD
The main source of information about this period is the Rig Veda.This is why this period is also known as the Rig Vedic Age.
The Aryan were divided into many tribes,called janas.Each tribe settled in a particular area.People were loyal towards the tribe to which they belonged.Very often,the different tribes fought against one another.
Social divisions The Rigvedic society came to be divided between the fair-skinned Aryans and the dark-skinned Aryans called the dasas or dayus.Recreation Chariot-racing hunting gambling singing dancing and playing musical instruments such as the flute were the popular forms of entertainment.
The early Aryans moved around from place to place.They domesticated the cow.There are many references to it in the Rig Veda.The Cow was an important elements of wealth.Aman,s prosperity was estimated in terms of the numbert of cows he owned.The horse was also an important animal.It was used to pull chariots.
Later Vedic Period:
The period from 1000-600 BC is called the Later Vedic Age.The Three later Vedas-Sama Veda,Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda,are our main source of information about this period.We also get to know about this period from the Brahmans,the Upanishada and the two epic-the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
Villages The villages were much bigger and better-planed now.Each village consisted of a nhumber of huts.These were built of straw,bamboo and wood and were usually rectangular in shape.The huts were srrounded by fences.Feiled lay close to the huts.
Gurukul system of education
The Aryans used to send their sons to the gurukul,the residence of the teacher.Here the pupils stayed as member of the guru's family.They learned the Vedas and subject such as logic,mathematics,grammar and medicine.Education was imparted orally.
The gods of the Rig Vedic Age lost their important.Prajapati(Brahma),Vishnu and Shiva became the important gods.Brahma was worshipped as the creato of the world.Vishnu as the preserver;and Shiva as the destroyer.The Vedic Age ended around 600 BC when big territorial units callled 'janapadas'came to be formed.The tribsl set up of the Aryans gave way to the formation of republic and monarchies.
.The Aryans came to india probaly from Iron or Central Asia.
.The early Aryans lived in tribal groups,headed by a cheif.The chief was assisted by two assemblies-samiti and sabha.
.Agriculture and cattle-rearing were the main occupations.The cow and horse were important animals.
.In the Later Vedic Period,the Aryans began to use iron and shifted toward the Ganga valley.
.The king became very powerful.Tribes were replaced by small kingdom.
.The caste system became rigid.Birth determined the caste of a person.
.Condification of laws,building of roads and growth of literature and painting are some achievement of the Romans.
.The nature gods of the earlier period were replaced by Brahma,Vishnu and Shiva.Elaborate rituals and animal sacrifices were practised.