Wonders of the world
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
A Greek author Anticipater of Sidon (2nd century BC) was the first to list the greatest monuments and buildings as the Seven wonders of the World. Most of these structures are now in ruins except the ‘Pyramids of Egypt’ , a portion of which has survived. Antipater listed the following Seven Wonders of the world:
1. The pyramids of Egypt These are royal tombs built more than 4000 years ago for the Egyptian Pharaohs and house their mummified bodies surrounded by their treasures and personal belongings. They are about 70 in number and represent 1200 years of ancient Egyptian history that flourished around the lower Nile (near Cairo) . Of all the seven wonders, the pyramids alone survive.
2. The Colossus of Rhodes It was a bronze statue of the Greek sungod, Helios (Apollo) in the port city of Rhodes along the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. It was sculpted around 325 BC by Charles of Lindus. It was destroyed during an earthquake in 224 BC.
3. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon They were built in the 6th century BC by Nebuchadnezzar II near the Euphrates river (south of modern Baghdad, Iraq). The gardens consisted of a series of terraces at about 23-91 m (75 -300 feet) above the ground level and water was piped down from the reservoir at the top of the terraces.
4. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Also known as the Tomb of Mausolus (the King of Caria in Asia Minor-325 BC) at Halicarnassus on the eastern side of Aegean Sea in Turkey.
5. The Pharos of Alexandria It was world’s first known lighthouse, built in 270 BC on the island of Pharos at the entrance of the port Alexandria (chief port of Egypt on the Nile Delta). It was destroyed by an earthquake in the 13th century.
6. The Statue of Zeus(Jupiter) at Olympia It was located in the valley of Olympia, in the southern peninsula of Greece and was made of wood; sometime in 5th century BC.
7. The Temple of Artemis(Diana) at Ephesus(Rome) It was situated in Asia Minor at Ephesus, an ancient but now vanished city, built some time in 5th century BC. It was destroyed by invading hordes in 262 AD.The fragments of this structure are preserved in the British museum.
Other Wonders of the world
1. The Taj Mahal of Agra Built in 1631-1653 by emperor Shahjahan in Agra as a mausoleum for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. The tomb of Shahjahan also rests by its side.
<2. The Great Wall of China Built in the 3rd century BC to protect China against nomadic invaders from the north. It has a mainline length of 3460 km, running across northern China up to the border with Turkestan.
3. The Eiffel Tower Built by Alexandra Gustave Eiffel for the 1889 paris exhibition. It is about 300m high.
4. The Leaning Tower of Pisa Built by Bonanus of Pisa around 1154 AD. It is a 54.5 m high tower made of marble.
5. The Sphinx
Near Gizeh in Egypt. It is a large winged, crouching lion hewn out of a solid rock-52.6 m long and 20.1 m high and built around 2500 BC.